Radiation doses differ for each person because of differences in x-ray machines and their settings, the amount of radioactive material given in a nuclear medicine procedure, and the patient’s metabolism. The majority of background radiation occurs naturally and a small fraction comes from man-made elements. Infographic of the Day: The Best Radiation Chart We’ve Seen So Far. The most useful descriptor is effective dose. 196, No. The ranges of TIE for a typical clinical examination are listed in ,Table 3. Because the natural radiation background is about 3 mSv per year (,11), or 8 μSv per day, the amount of radiation received from a radiologic procedure can be expressed in terms of a certain number of days or years of background radiation. For chest CT, the critical organs are the thymus, lungs, and breasts. The relationship between age at exposure to radiation and cancer risk is demonstrated in the ,Figure and is based on the BEIR VII report data (,9). Some are based on measured depth dose data (,48,,49), some involve using a transmission ionization chamber (,50), and some use Monte Carlo simulations with assumptions of the x-ray energy spectra (,47). DAP is a product of the irradiated surface area multiplied by the radiation dose at the surface. The concept of CTDI100 has been challenged and its adequacy re-examined (,33). National reference doses are based on the rounded third quartile values of the dose distributions. RadiologyInfo.org, RSNA and ACR are not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. X-rays are also called radiation. That, however, is beyond the scope of this article. A small area in India as high as 30 mSv (3 rem). FAD refers to the fetal absorbed dose. The ideal CTDI is defined as the radiation dose normalized to beam width T measured from negative infinite to positive infinite along z, thus integrating the total area under the dose profile, including the entire “scatter tails.”. People living at high altitudes such as Colorado or New Mexico receive about 1.5 mSv more per year than those living near sea level. To show the relationship between the effective dose and the skin dose, the ratios of effective dose to both SAD and DAP are listed in ,Table 5 for several different examinations. DISCOGRAPHY BERT HENDRIX: Discography Singles: Title: Label: Release: Sag, wer du bist: Amiga: 1965: Tennessee Waltz: Amiga: 1965: Warum sind die Wälder so … Once the contextual word embeddings is trained, a signal linear layer classification model is trained for tacking named-entity recognition (NER), de-identification (de-ID) task or sentiment classification. To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking to this site. Cindy & Bert in den Albumcharts. Diese Diskografie ist eine Übersicht über die musikalischen Werke der deutschen Schlager sängerin Andrea Berg.Sie hat in ihrer Karriere mehr als 15 Millionen Tonträger verkauft und ist eine der Interpreten mit den meisten verkauften Tonträgern in Deutschland. 2, Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology, Vol. The relationships demonstrated are based on the BEIR VII report data (,9).Download as PowerPointOpen in Image Other radiation dose measurement units include rad, rem, roentgen, sievert, and gray. The 2000 UNSCEAR estimate for worldwide average natural background radiation dose is 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), with a range from 1 to 13 mSv. Although organ dose is more commonly seen in the literature for radiologic examinations, COD is a better mnemonic for remembering this quantity. If suboptimal protocols or equipment deficiencies are the cause of the higher dose levels, the problem areas need to be modified. 5, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Vol. For adults, generally a potential cancer risk of 6% per sievert of the effective dose is used (,9). Copyright © 2021 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (RSNA). 3, Journal of Korean Medical Science, Vol. These values were obtained from large surveys in the United States and England (,22–,27). Watch radiation propagate outward at the speed of light as you wiggle the charge. The patient radiation dose can vary by a factor of 40 or more from the lowest value to the highest value because of different patient sizes and other variations among equipment. I waive all copyright to this chart and place it in the public domain, so you are free to reuse it anywhere with no permission necessary. Suppl 1, 28 August 2014 | Europace, Vol. SAD is particularly important for interventional angiography and for cardiac procedures. Because the bioeffects (eg, prenatal death, abnormalities such as small head size and mental retardation, and risk of radiation-induced cancer) also depend on the fetus’s gestational age at the time of the FAD delivery, a benefit and risk analysis for radiologic studies should always discuss the risk associated with the FAD level at the specific gestational age. The critical organ for head CT is the brain. 12, No. Each of these descriptors is intended to relate radiation dose ultimately to potential biologic effects. It is relatively easy to calculate compared to the methods used to calculate effective dose. Radiation levels outside the Fukushima power plant remain mostly safe, but just how close are they to being dangerous? Similarly, SAD and COD can be obtained for chest, abdominal, and pelvic CT. For cardiac CT of the aorta, in which the scanning also includes the pelvic region, FAD dramatically increases; it can reach as much as 34 mGy (,46). 15, No. Therefore, the risk to the fetus from such exposure is low. See "Safety in X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures" for more information. In the literature, FAD is also referred to as fetal dose ; however, FAD is a better mnemonic to remember this dose descriptor. Knowledge of DAP and of the location and projection of the x-ray beam allows direct calculation of the effective dose. Radioactivity measurement & characterization of high-contaminated waste. 6, No. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Similarly, SAD and COD can be estimated for abdominal and lumbar spine radiographic exposures (,Table 2). The amount that is absorbed contributes to the patient's radiation dose. One gray is equal to 1 millijoule per gram of energy deposited by the x-rays. Because patient size and the position and size of the fetus vary during the gestational period, the FAD may be associated with a level of uncertainty. 163, No. TIE, which is equivalent to the integral dose, is a measure of the total ionizing energy delivered to a volume of tissue. There are a number of terms to describe radiation dose that have been used over the years (,1–,8). Please type your comment or suggestion into the text box below. Hence, the amount of radiation received from a radiologic procedure can be expressed in terms of a certain number of days or years of background radiation. Therefore, it is critical to understand the various radiation dose descriptors and to apply them properly. 6, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, Vol. For radiographic exposures that include the fetus in the primary beam, such as abdominal radiography and lower gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, FAD can be estimated by using the Monte Carlo simulation for various common projections (,15). When the fetus is not included in the primary x-ray beam during the imaging procedure, only scatter radiation contributes to the FAD. X-rays are a form of energy, similar to light and radio waves. As technologies advance, these values may change, most probably by being reduced, as is shown in a recent Health Protection Agency report (,26). The next dose descriptor in ,Table 3 is DAP. 1, 5 July 2012 | Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, Vol. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo.org provides links to relevant websites. Eight common radiation dose descriptors include background equivalent radiation time (BERT), critical organ dose (COD), surface absorbed dose (SAD), dose area product (DAP), diagnostic acceptable reference level (DARLing), effective dose (ED), fetal absorbed dose (FAD), and total imparted energy (TIE). These natural "background doses" vary according to where you live. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a physician with expertise in the medical area presented and is further reviewed by committees from the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologic areas. Each of these dose descriptors conveys may be a different type of information. The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine have published DARLing values based on the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends surveys (,22,,24). With these devices, the DAP indicator displayed on the monitor in real time is used to monitor the patient’s skin dose. RAD: Radiation Absorbed Dose. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. The organ dose to the brain is important for this reason. Here are some approximate comparisons of background radiation and effective radiation dose in adults for several radiology procedures described on this website. 47, No. 17, No. Naturally occurring radioactive minerals in the ground, soil, and water produce background radiation. DAP can easily be applied to radiologic examinations other than fluoroscopy, such as CT and radiographic procedures listed in ,Table 3. Background radiationBackground radiationRadiation that is always in the environment. When patient doses appear to be above those of DARLing, especially when they are consistently higher, investigation and assessment are required. Because TIE is considered to be directly related to effective dose, conversion factors have been developed to give the effective dose estimation from TIE (,51). The British National Radiological Protection Board has performed more extensive studies that provide DARLing values in both SAD and DAP units for radiography and fluoroscopy procedures and CTDIvol and dose-length product (DLP) units (ie, CTDIvol × scan length) for CT (,21,,25–,27). Therefore, it could be said that the benefit from medical imaging, which is an accurate diagnosis, is greater than the small risk that comes with using it. In the field of computer vision, researchers have repeatedly shown the value of transfer learning — pre-training a neural network model on a known task, for instance ImageNet, and then performing fine-tuning — using the trained neural network as the basis of a new purpose-specific model. Confusion can arise through inappropriate use of the terminology to describe radiation doses from clinical procedures to patients. Börse aktuell auf boerse.de: Aktuelle Börsenkurse von Aktien, Indizes, Fonds, Rohstoffen oder Devisen - Kostenlos und aktuell auf boerse.de Moreover, many new fluoroscopy and angiography units include a special ionization chamber at the surface of the x-ray tube collimator that measures DAP directly and that makes DAP values readily available. The estimated values for barium enema and upper gastrointestinal studies are listed in ,Table 2. Figure. By itself, SAD is not useful for assessing radiation risks, except for the risk for skin erythema. 1, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. SAD is useful for determining the risk of skin erythema and for assessing the risk for cataracts. Figure. May 27, 2016 - This Pin was discovered by Michelle Keleher. Its unit of measurement is usually milligrays, which is equivalent to millijoules per kilogram. Table 1 provides a list of eight common radiation dose descriptors. 29, No. Then the average glandular breast dose is determined by considering all the factors, including kilovolt peak, half-value layer, target material, added filter material, and SAD, and by assuming a breast tissue composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue. X-rays are a form of energy, similar to light and radio waves. ! Viewer, http://www.angelfire.com/mo/radioadaptive/jcameron1.html, http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ohip/organdose.html, http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/radhlth/next.html, http://www.hpa.org.uk/radiation/publications/hpa_rpd_reports/2007/hpa_rpd_029.htm, http://www.hpa.org.uk/radiation/publications/w_series_reports/2005/nrpb_w67.pdf, http://www.hpa.org.uk/radiation/publications/software/sr250.htm, http://www.unfors.com/Products.php?catid=74, Describing ionising radiation risk in the clinical setting: A systematic review, Radiographic manifestations of inoperable primary bronchogenic carcinoma, Irradiation provided by dental radiological procedures in a pediatric population, Radiation Exposure During Videourodynamics: Establishing Risk Factors, Effective Dose in Abdominal Digital Radiography: Patient Factors, Knowing the Enemy: Health Care Provider Knowledge of Computed Tomography Radiation Dose and Associated Risks, Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts, Patient Dose Management: Focus on Practical Actions, Effective radiation dosage of three-dimensional rotational angiography in children, Review of Kerma-Area Product and total energy incident on patients in radiography, mammography and CT, Guideline for Fluoroscopy of Low Gastrointestinal Tract in Pediatrics, Radiation dose reduction in thoracic and abdomen–pelvic CT using tube current modulation: a phantom study, Kerma-Area Product in Diagnostic Radiology, Monitoring Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease by Computed Tomography. Risk refers to possible side effects, such as the chance of developing a cancer later in life. Background radiation includes a considerable component related to radon. As the radiation moves through your body, it passes through bones, tissues and organs differently, which allows a radiologist to create images of them. Effective dose is usually between 3%–5% of the SAD for head or extremity CT studies and up to 75% of the SAD for whole-body CT studies. Einstellbar sind verschiedene Zeiträume, Charttypen und Indikatoren. 5, American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. The Food and Drug Administration has suggested that the CTDI, normalized to beam width and measured from 14 contiguous sections, be used as the radiation dose (,31). Exposing a patient to radiation is a measured, justified means aiding patient care.Each medical imaging examination utilizing ionizing radiation adheres to the fundamental principles of radiation protection.. Note for pediatric patients: Pediatric patients vary in size. The actual dose can vary substantially, depending on a person's size as well as on differences in imaging practices. The UK Charts - June 2013 FRANKIE HATEZ "QUIET PEOPLE" All the top 20 around the world Stefan Standing on the edge : HOME: FORUM: CONTACT: CINDY & BERT - MACH MIR ZUM ABSCHIED NOCH EINEN KAFFEE (SONG) Year: 1981: Music/Lyrics: Alex Rittersporn Hans Bonneval: Producer: Bert Berger: AVAILABLE ON FOLLOWING MEDIA: Version: Length: Title : Label Number: Format Medium: Date: 3:18: … One milliroentgen, abbreviated "mR" is one-thousandth of a roentgen. 10, No. The relationships demonstrated are based on the BEIR VII report data (,9). FAD is typically reported in milligrays. As the radiation moves through your body, it passes through bones, tissues and organs differently, which allows a radiologist to create images of them. Therefore, CTDIvol is defined as a CTDI descriptor that is related to CTDIw by a factor of NT/I, where NT represents the total x-ray beam width, and I represents the table moving increment: With the new development of multidetector row CT, a total beam width of 40 mm, or even more, is possible. Modern fluoroscopy systems are often entirely automated and computer controlled. 4, Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Vol. Regardless, FAD is useful in assessing potential bioeffects to the fetus caused by irradiation. Therefore, the dose value may vary greatly between new equipment and old equipment. Some of the higher values may be unavoidable; however, many of the higher values can be avoided. Consistently higher patient doses should be investigated for possible equipment deficiencies or suboptimal protocols. RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. 1, American Journal of Neuroradiology, Vol. For radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations, differences in projection angles, collimated fields of view, source-to-skin distance, and variations in geometric location all contribute to a range in dose levels listed in ,Tables 2–,,4. Das Album hielt sich 4 Wochen in den Charts und schaffte es bis auf Platz 42. Radiation Risk in Perspective, Entrance skin dosimetry and size-specific dose estimate from pediatric chest CTA, Patient Radiation Dose in Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures for Intracranial Aneurysms: Experience at a Single Center, Patient radiation exposure during percutaneous endovascular revascularization of the lower extremity, Cardiac three-dimensional rotational angiography can be performed with low radiation dose while preserving image quality, Fluoroscopic Radiation Exposure During Hip Arthroscopy, Computed tomography (CT) colonography with CT arteriography and venography for the workup of intestinal transplant candidates, Optimizing Imaging Quality and Radiation Dose by the Age-Dependent Setting of Tube Voltage in Pediatric Chest Digital Radiography, Survey of dose area product received by patients undergoing common radiological examinations in four centers in Nigeria, Automated Framework for Digital Radiation Dose Index Reporting From CT Dose Reports, Three-dimensional cardiac rotational angiography: effective radiation dose and image quality implications, A Monte Carlo estimation of effective dose in chest tomosynthesis, Effective Dose and Its Estimation from Diagnostic X-ray Imaging Procedures, Radiation Doses from Venous Access Procedures, Clinical Radiation Management for Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures, Quality Initiatives Radiation Risk: What You Should Know to Tell Your Patient, Radiation Safety in the Fluoroscopy Suite: History, Current Devices, Future Developments, and Controversies, Real-time Management of Patient Radiation Dose during Interventional Radiology. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. For imaging procedures that involve fluoroscopy, SAD can be estimated by using the measured entrance skin exposure rate (ESER) and the x-ray “beam-on” time. Results are listed in ,Table 2. Viewer. 73, No. The organ doses listed in ,Table 2 were estimated by using the conversion factors calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation (,15). COD can be used to assess the risks of irradiation beyond cancer induction for certain organs; for example, other potential bioeffects can include skin erythema, cataracts, fetal abnormalities, hematologic effects, vascular damage, and effects on the central nervous system. Table 1.Radiation Dose Descriptors and the Ways the Information Can Be Applied in Clinical Practices, Table 2.Typical Values of SAD, COD, and FAD for Several Types of Clinical Examinations, Table 3.Typical Values of TIE and DAP for Several Types of Clinical Examinations, Table 4.Typical Values of DARLing, Effective Dose, and BERT for Several Types of Clinical Examinations, Table 5.Ratios of Effective Dose with Both SAD and DAP for Several Types of Examinations, Table 6.Potential Bioeffects Caused by Exposure to Radiation, Journal of Digital Imaging, Vol. Discover (and save!) The majority of background radiation occurs naturally from minerals and a small fraction comes from man-made elements. The clinical examination types can be classified as CT, radiography, and fluoroscopy. Like TIE, DAP is considered to be a good tool for estimating the stochastic risk associated with irradiation. With such knowledge, radiologists can correctly evaluate radiation dose and be prepared to consult with patients who may be concerned about the risks of radiation. If you are interested in doing research on the use of effective dose, here are a few resources: http://www.imagegently.org/Roles-What-can-I-do/Parent. According to recent estimates, the average person in the U.S. receives an effective dose of about 3 mSv per year from natural radiation, which includes cosmic radiation from outer space. Please note that this chart attempts to simplify a very complex topic. The “equivalent radiation dose” is how much energy is absorbed in a unit amount of tissue, adjusted for the local distribution of absorbed energy. Each radiation dose descriptor provides different information related to the irradiation of tissue. In the literature, DARLing has also been called the reference level and the diagnostic reference level; however, DARLing is a better mnemonic to remember this dose descriptor. However, it is often used as the starting point for calculating organ doses, including COD. Das erfolgreichste Album von Cindy & Bert in Deutschland war "Die Lieder unserer Welt". In clinical practice, tabular data of the conversion factors (in millisieverts per grays-centimeters squared) for DAP can yield the effective dose (,13,,21). The unit of measure typically used to report TIE is the millijoule, or joule, which is a unit for energy deposited. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. The radiologist is a specially trained physician who can examine these images on a monitor. The goal is to convert the higher radiation doses delivered to a small portion of the body into an equivalent uniform dose to the entire body that carries the same risk for causing radiation-induced fatal and nonfatal cancers and serious hereditary effects to all generations. 5, 22 October 2012 | Clinical Transplantation, Vol. The risk associated with medical imaging procedures refers to possible long-term or short-term side effects. This website does not provide cost information. These models achieves a better result in MedNLI by comparing to original BERT model. There are tools that help physicians explain radiation doses from medical imaging to patients in terms of 15, No. Although the amount of radiation varies with altitude and location, the annual background radiation is about 3 mSv per year (,11). SAD can also be estimated from the CTDI measured at the periphery position of the appropriately sized phantom. The monitor is like a computer display. This ionization can significantly change the subsequent chemistry of the biomolecule, and can impact the subsequent health of the system. SAD, DAP, or CTDIvol values that are greater than those of DARLing may be attributed to the patient’s size, the complexity of the clinical case, equipment malfunctions, or suboptimal protocols. Assuming 120 kVp, approximately 200–300 mAs, and a pitch of 1.0, the SAD for head CT is about 40–55 mGy (,Table 2). We are exposed to natural sources of radiation all the time. It is abbreviated with the capital "R". 6, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. If radiation levels frequently exceed the DARLing values, an investigation is warranted to determine the cause of the higher levels. 189, No. Because of the attenuation of x-rays by the skull, the brain dose is different from the CTDIvol value. Regardless of the location or the amount of tissue being irradiated, effective dose is directly related to the potential risks of radiation-induced cancer and genetic defects. 27, No. First, the SAD is measured using the ACR standard mammography phantom. 31, No. * Because radiation is a natural phenomenon of daily life, this descriptor is easily understandable for the general public. Dental X-Ray Radiation Comparison Radiation from dental radiographs is quite minimal and very safe for healthy patients to be exposed to. In this article, we review a number of different radiation dose descriptors and indicate how the information they convey can best be used. However, it is important to indicate both the value and the type of dose being specified; quoting a radiation dose for a head CT scan of 1.4 mSv without indicating that the value is an effective dose may incorrectly suggest to the reader that the eye and brain doses are 1.4 mSv, which is only 3%–4% of the actual value. Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) is a Transformer-based machine learning technique for natural language processing (NLP) pre-training developed by Google. Hospitals and imaging centers apply the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). For example, FAD is low for head, chest, and cardiac CT (,Table 2). Also, the COD values for various organs, along with their corresponding weighting factors, can be used to calculate the effective dose (,19,,20). The unit of measurement that is typically used for effective dose is millisieverts. 4, 17 December 2009 | Europace, Vol. 40, No. The key is to understand their meanings and to avoid using them interchangeably. In addition, it limits the dosimeter to the exact length of the 14 sections. TIE is considered to be a better dose descriptor than SAD for estimating the stochastic risk of cancer induction and of genetic injuries (,47). Doctors use "effective dose" when they talk about the risk of radiation to the entire body. Methods. DAP is valuable because radiation-induced bioeffects are directly related to both the magnitude of the radiation dose and the total amount of tissue that is irradiated. However, this measurement is often complicated by the various section widths that are used. These numbers are also listed in ,Table 4. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 103 states: "The use of effective dose for assessing the exposure of patients has severe limitations that must be considered when quantifying medical exposure," and "The assessment and interpretation of effective dose from medical exposure of patients is very problematic when organs and tissues receive only partial exposure or a very heterogeneous exposure which is the case especially with x-ray diagnostics." Absorbed and equivalent radiation doses can not be directly converted as the conversion depends on the type of radiation. The estimation of SAD for a radiographic exposure begins by measuring the x-ray system output at various kilovolt peak stations at a certain distance (eg, 100 cm source-to-image receptor distance). Microelectronics Journal, 26 (1995) 627-633 0026-2692(95)00022-4 Simulating radiation reliability with BERT Paolo Pavan1"2 Robert Tu2, Eric Minami2 ! Stop a moving charge to see bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation. For abdominal and pelvic CT, the fetus is in the primary beam, and FAD is considerable (more than 50% of SAD). By itself, TIE is not a useful descriptor. In reality, the integral range is shortened for practical purposes. The average glandular dose is about 1.5–2.5 mGy per image, as is listed in ,Table 2. ,Table 6 shows various bioeffects that could potentially be caused by exposure to radiation (,1,,9,,54). Chart visualising the range of non-lethal to lethal doses of radiation. CTDIp appropriate to assess the radiation dose to the skin for potential erythema or epilation (,9) and the radiation dose to the eye for potential cataract induction (,9). The descriptor background equivalent radiation time (BERT) was first proposed and promoted by Dr John Cameron of University of Wisconsin-Madison (,5). Over the years, conversion factors have been developed based on various Monte Carlo simulations to estimate effective dose from SAD, DAP, and DLP in CT for x-ray imaging of various body regions. 203, No. 2, 6 November 2009 | Medical Physics, Vol. These reference levels exist for physicians to use their professional judgment in determining if procedures are being performed under optimal conditions. Radioactivity measurement & characterization of high-contaminated waste . View the specification chart to find your ideal combination. To help ensure current and accurate information, we review a number of terms to describe radiation are... States and England (,22–,27 ) the imaging procedure, only scatter radiation to! No dose limits or constraints on patient radiation dose that could potentially caused... The amount of radiation, rem, roentgen, sievert, and water produce radiation... Matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your.... Apply them properly dose are high,1,,9,,54 ) how close are they to being?... Specification chart to find your ideal combination is compared to the FAD because is., 17 December 2009 | Europace, Vol tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations descriptor provides different related! Monte Carlo simulation, and distance from a Monte Carlo simulation, water. Useful descriptor maintaining effective diagnostic image quality, 22 October 2012 | clinical Transplantation, Vol radiation that through! 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Published in 2018 by Jacob Devlin and his colleagues from Google a moving charge see! For pediatric patients: pediatric patients vary in size is quite minimal and very safe for healthy to! Relate radiation dose descriptors conveys may be a good tool for estimating the stochastic risk associated with medical tests! Low because a high kilovolt peak setting is typically used to help place tubes or devices... 'S radiation dose delivered to the fetus is not widely available year than those living near level... Bert Kaempfert und seinem Orchester in den USA procedures to patients attempts to a... Are known Table 6 shows various bioeffects that could potentially be caused by exposure to radiation public.