[347][348][349] Famous painters from Massachusetts include Winslow Homer and Norman Rockwell;[349] many of the latter's works are on display at the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge. [283] Service between the two islands is also offered. In total, 21.07% (1,287,419) of Massachusetts's population 5 and older spoke a first language other than English.[179][205]. [204], As of 2010, 78.93% (4,823,127) of Massachusetts residents 5 and older spoke English at home as a first language, while 7.50% (458,256) spoke Spanish, 2.97% (181,437) Portuguese, 1.59% (96,690) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.11% (67,788) French, 0.89% (54,456) French Creole, 0.72% (43,798) Italian, 0.62% (37,865) Russian, and Vietnamese was spoken as a primary language by 0.58% (35,283) of the population over 5. [143] Currently, forests cover around 62% of Massachusetts. [308] The current governor is Charlie Baker,[309] a Republican from Swampscott. [329] In 2008, Massachusetts voters passed an initiative decriminalizing possession of small amounts of marijuana. Boston University, Northeastern University, UMASS Lowell, and Merrimack College also participate in Division I athletics. In recent years tourism has played an ever-important role in the state's economy, with Boston and Cape Cod being the leading destinations. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful scientific, commercial, and cultural role in the history of the United States. Dzhokhar later said he was motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs and learned to build explosive devices from Inspire, the online magazine of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. [106] On the coast, Salem became a center for privateering. Many residents who have settled in Greater Springfield claim Puerto Rican descent. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,[61] with the largest financial endowment of any university,[62] and Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. The route travels 136 mi (219 km) generally west to east, entering Massachusetts at the New York state line in the town of West Stockbridge, and passes just north of Springfield, just south of Worcester and through Framingham before terminating near Logan International Airport in Boston. Some colleges and universities also operate campus television and radio stations, and print their own newspapers. [245][246], As of 2012, there were 7,755 farms in Massachusetts encompassing a total of 523,517 acres (2,120 km2), averaging 67.5 acres (0.273 km2) apiece. ", "The United States Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service", "An Introduction to UMass Medical School", "College Basketball Teams—Division I Teams", "Cornell Rowing Excels at Eastern Sprints", Professional Golfers' Association of America, The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action, Massachusetts Office of Travel and Tourism, Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Office of Housing and Economic Development, Office of Labor and Workforce Development, cities with populations exceeding 100,000, Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters, Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Massachusetts&oldid=1001270168, States and territories established in 1788, States of the East Coast of the United States, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from June 2018, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with failed verification from September 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. There are a number of major AM and FM stations which serve Massachusetts,[380] along with many more regional and community-based stations. In addition to the Federal Residential Renewable energy credit, Massachusetts residents may be eligible for a tax credit of up to 15 percent of the project. Additionally, Massachusetts provided Reagan with his smallest margins of victory in both the 1980[319] and 1984 elections. [84], The first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived on the Mayflower[85] at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. Residents may qualify for a replacement of their heating system, insulation installation, appliances, and thermostats if they meet the income qualifications provided on Mass Save’s website. The following cases were among the most significant. [98], The most destructive earthquake yet known in New England occurred in 1755, causing considerable damage across Massachusetts. [97] Shortly after the arrival of the new province's first governor, William Phips, the Salem witch trials took place, where a number of men and women were hanged for alleged witchcraft. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. The dominant companies serving these routes include SeaStreak, Hy-Line Cruises, and The Steamship Authority, the latter of which regulates all passenger services in the region and is also the only company permitted to offer freight ferry services to the islands. [294] Some airports receive funding from the Aeronautics Division of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration; the FAA is also the primary regulator of Massachusetts air travel.[295]. [222], Massachusetts's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools was eighth in the nation in 2012, at $14,844. Rock would later campaign for equal pay for these and other black soldiers. (The name "State of Massachusetts Bay" appeared in the first—rejected—draft. Court Orders Tiger King’s Jeff Lowe to Hand over Big Cat Cubs and Their Mothers . With this incentive, residents may qualify for a State incentive of up to $2,500 dollars for the purchase or lease of an electric vehicle, or $1,500 for the purchase or lease of a plug-in hybrid vehicle. [52] In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. The Massachusetts Bay banished dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams due to religious and political disagreements. The Basketball Hall of Fame is a major tourist destination in the City of Springfield and the Volleyball Hall of Fame is located in Holyoke. In Massachusetts, eleven Program Administrators, including NSTAR, National Grid, Western Massachusetts Electric, Cape Light Compact, Until, and Berkshire Gas, jointly own the rights to this program, in conjunction with the MA Department of Energy Resources (DOER) and the Energy Efficiency Advisory Council (EEAC). [244] This includes a diverse array of manufactured goods such as medical devices, paper goods, specialty chemicals and plastics, telecommunications and electronics equipment, and machined components. [148] White-tailed deer, raccoons, wild turkeys, and eastern gray squirrels are also found throughout Massachusetts. [338] In this structure, incorporated towns—as opposed to townships or counties—hold many of the responsibilities and powers of local government. ‘They Were Planning a Civil War’: Feds Charge Men with Bringing Weapons into U.S. Capitol During Siege . [373], Massachusetts is one of the states with the largest percentage of Catholics. [86] This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, after the Jamestown Colony. For example, James Otis, a leading proponent of colonial independence, wrote in a highly regarded and influential 1764 pamphlet that \"The colonists are by the law of nature freeborn, as indeed all men are, white or black.\" … The Springfield metropolitan area, also known as Greater Springfield, is also a major center of population. [261] In 2018, Massachusetts consumed 1,459 trillion BTU,[262] making it the seventh-lowest state in terms of consumption of energy per capita, and 31 percent of that energy came from natural gas. [323] Both houses of the legislature have had Democratic majorities since the 1950s. Commonly known as "the Big Dig", it was, at the time, the biggest federal highway project ever approved. [73][74], The official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts". These cases focused on wartime civil liberties, and the ability of the various branches of the government to alter them. [44] Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade,[45] Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. [345], Massachusetts was an early center of the Transcendentalist movement, which emphasized intuition, emotion, human individuality and a deeper connection with nature. [113], During the 19th century, Massachusetts became a national leader in the American Industrial Revolution, with factories around cities such as Lowell and Boston producing textiles and shoes, and factories around Springfield producing tools, paper, and textiles. Supreme Court’s ruling on ‘religious freedom’ raises red flags. Democrats have an absolute grip on the Massachusetts congressional delegation; there are no Republicans elected to serve at the federal level. Opposition to continued construction grew, and in 1970 Governor Francis W. Sargent issued a general prohibition on most further freeway construction within the I-95/Route 128 loop in the Boston area. [381][382][383], Massachusetts generally ranks highly among states in most health and disease prevention categories. [221] Massachusetts is also home to the highest ranked private high school in the United States, Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, which was founded in 1778. [315] Like most states, Massachusetts's electoral votes are granted in a winner-take-all system. The works of such abolitionists contributed to Massachusetts's actions during the Civil War. Horace Mann made the state's school system a national model. [178], As of 2015, Massachusetts was estimated to be the third-most densely populated U.S. state, with 871.0 people per square mile,[179] behind New Jersey and Rhode Island. New Hampshire Sues Massachusetts in U.S. Supreme Court for Taxing Remote Workers ‘In the Middle of a Global Pandemic’ … [47] Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[48]. The court used the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights, that … [99][100], Massachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from Great Britain; colonists in Massachusetts had long uneasy relations with the British monarchy, including open rebellion under the Dominion of New England in the 1680s. [262], Massachusetts has 10 regional metropolitan planning organizations and three non-metropolitan planning organizations covering the remainder of the state;[266] statewide planning is handled by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Massachusetts also has large Dominican, Puerto Rican, Haitian, Cape Verdean and Brazilian populations. [52] On February 6, 1788, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the United States Constitution. Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem, United States Declaration of Independence, Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga, Constitutional Convention (United States), List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Department of Conservation and Recreation, Lowell Power Canal System and Pawtucket Gatehouse, African Americans migrated to Massachusetts, List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts, List of engineering schools in Massachusetts, List of school districts in Massachusetts, Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, National Assessment of Educational Progress, List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income, List of Massachusetts locations by unemployment rate, Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Lowell National Historical Park Trolley Line, to route I-95 northeastwards from Providence, Rhode Island, directly through central Boston, United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, Political party strength in Massachusetts, United States presidential elections in Massachusetts, Government of Massachusetts § Local Government, Springfield Armory National Historic Site, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park, National Shrine of The Divine Mercy (Stockbridge, Massachusetts), List of television stations in Massachusetts, Governorship of Mitt Romney § Health care, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth", "States where English is the official language", "Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over—2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates", "Black-Capped Chickadee:Massachusetts State Bird", "Wild Turkey:Massachusetts State Game Bird", "Right Whale: Massachusetts State Marine Mammal", "Morgan Horse: Massachusetts State Horse", "Boston Terrier: Massachusetts State Dog", "Garter Snake: Massachusetts State Reptile", "Cranberry Juice: Massachusetts State Beverage", "Blue—Green—Cranberry: Massachusetts State Colors", "Square Dance: Massachusetts State Folk Dance", "Corn Muffin: Massachusetts State Muffin", "Baked Navy Bean: Massachusetts State Bean", "Boston Creme Pie: Massachusetts State Dessert", "Chocolate Chip Cookie: Massachusetts State Cookie", "Boston Cream Donut: Massachusetts State Donut", "Dinosaur Tracks: Massachusetts State Fossil", "Babingtonite: Massachusetts State Mineral", "Blue Hills of Massachusetts: Massachusetts State Poem", "Can you guess the state sport of Massachusetts? In 1636, Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island, and Hutchinson joined him there several years later. [81], In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles, influenza, and perhaps leptospirosis. [389] Massachusetts also ranks above average in the prevalence of binge drinking, which is the 20th-highest in the country. Massachusetts is also the home of rowing events such as the Eastern Sprints on Lake Quinsigamond and the Head of the Charles Regatta. “Mass Solar Loan.” Mass CEC, www.masssolarloan.com/. ", "John Fraylor. [116] At first, the new industries drew labor from Yankees on nearby subsistence farms, and later relied upon immigrant labor from Europe and Canada. Massachusetts has a long political history; earlier political structures included the Mayflower Compact of 1620, the separate Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, and the combined colonial Province of Massachusetts. Despite the state's Democratic-leaning tendency, Massachusetts has generally elected Republicans as Governor: only one Democrat (Deval Patrick) has served as governor since 1991, and among gubernatorial election results from 2002 to 2018, Republican nominees garnered 48.4% of the vote compared to 45.7% for Democratic nominees. [136] George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States (1989–1993) was born in Milton in 1924. [260] There is no inheritance tax and limited Massachusetts estate tax related to federal estate tax collection. Several universities in Massachusetts are notable for their collegiate athletics. Bostonian John Adams, known as the "Atlas of Independence",[108] was highly involved in both separation from Britain and the Constitution of Massachusetts, which effectively (the Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker cases as interpreted by William Cushing) made Massachusetts the first state to abolish slavery. [87], The Puritans, who believed the Church of England needed to be purified and experienced harassment from English authority because of their beliefs,[88] came to Massachusetts intending to establish an ideal religious society. [129] In Eastern Massachusetts, following World War II, the economy was transformed from one based on heavy industry into a service-based economy. [223] In 2013, Massachusetts scored highest of all the states in math and third-highest in reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. [292] Massachusetts has 39 public-use airfields[293] and more than 200 private landing spots. [233] CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2014" has recognized Massachusetts as the 25th-best state in the nation for business,[234] and for the second year in a row the state was ranked by Bloomberg as the most innovative state in America. [125], With the departure of several manufacturing companies, the area's industrial economy began to decline during the early 20th century. Some disaffiliated along with Roman Catholics and other Christian groups in the wake of modern secularization. GOP Voters Like Trump More Than Their Republican Governors", "Same-sex couples ready to make history in Massachusetts", United States House of Representatives elections in Massachusetts, 2008, "Massachusetts voters approve ballot measure to legalize medical marijuana", "Massachusetts issues first marijuana license", "Massachusetts Senate Overrides Veto, Passes Law Expanding Abortion Access", "Information and Historical Data on Cities, Towns, and Counties in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts", Administrative divisions of Massachusetts#The city/town distinction, "Boston's population stays flat, but still ranks as 11th-largest in U.S. (BBJ DataCenter)", "Massachusetts Facts Part One: Concise Facts", "Massachusetts Government: County Government", "UConn Poll: New Englanders & Regional Identity", "Rocking history lesson shows city was in a class by itself", "Boston plans to hold Fourth of July celebrations Thursday", "A Spectator's Guide To The 2015 Boston Marathon", "Nielson Media Research Local Universe Estimates (US)", "US Newspaper—Search Results (Massachusetts)", "About the BU Literary Society and Clarion", "Doctors per 100,000 Resident Population, 2007", "Persons With and Without Health Insurance Coverage by State: 2007", "Here's how your life expectancy varies based on which state you're born in", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Booziest states in America: Who binge drinks most? Strauder v. West Virginia , 100 U.S. 303 (1880) The exclusion of individuals from juries solely because of their race is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. Two pressure cooker bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, at around 2:49 pm EDT. It is home to the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Other major interstates in Massachusetts include I-291, I-391, I-84, I-195, I-395, I-290, and I-190. That break occurs around the 1954 Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education, ordering the desegregation of public schools. [162] This is almost twice as much as the average for the contiguous United States. [179] The descendants of the Puritans belong to many different churches; in the direct line of inheritance are the various Congregational churches, the United Church of Christ and congregations of the Unitarian Universalist Association. "The Hull Mint produced several denominations of silver coinage, including the pine tree shilling, for over 30 years until the political and economic situation made operating the mint no longer practical." [311], The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (a chief justice and six associates) are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the executive council, as are all other judges in the state. On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage after a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling in November 2003 determined that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the right to a civil marriage was unconstitutional. The Supreme Judicial Court rejected a challenge brought on behalf of a group including salon owners, pastors and the headmaster of a private school, who accused the Republican governor of exercising “legislative police power” by declaring a state of emergency under the state’s Civil Defense Act. [172], For income-eligible residents, Mass Save has partnered with Massachusetts Community Action Program Agencies and Low-Income Energy Affordability Network (LEAN) to offer residents assistance with upgrades to their homes that will result in more efficient energy usage. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, "2015 State Scorecard Rank—Massachusetts", "Boston Takes Top Spot Again in City Energy Efficiency Scorecard", "Massachusetts Regional Planning Agencies", "Air Travel's Hassles Drive Riders to Amtrak's Acela", "T announces summer Cape Cod train service", The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority, "Massachusetts Passenger and Freight Rail", "Massachusetts State Rail Plan, May 2018", "Massachusetts State Fact Sheet: Rail Fast Facts For 2017", "Public Use Airports Locations | Mass.gov", "2018 Massachusetts Road Inventory Year End Report", "Gerry Studds Dies at 69; First Openly Gay Congressman", "Massachusetts Set to Offer Universal Health Insurance", "Massachusetts Makes Health Insurance Mandatory", "Florida is about to ban sanctuary cities. [260] The sales tax is charged on clothing that costs more than $175.00, for the amount exceeding $175.00. [103], The Battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the American Revolutionary War and were fought in the eponymous Massachusetts towns. According to 2010 data from The Association of Religion Data Archives, (ARDA) the largest single denominations are the Catholic Church with 2,940,199 adherents; the United Church of Christ with 86,639 adherents; and the Episcopal Church with 81,999 adherents. On Monday, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court unanimously ruled that state court officers are not legally permitted to comply with ICE detainers. [387] According to Businessweek, commonwealth residents have an average life expectancy of 80.41 years, the fifth-longest in the country. In 2004, Massachusetts senator John Kerry who won the Democratic nomination for President of the United States narrowly lost to incumbent George W. Bush. Several stations in western Massachusetts are also served by the Vermonter, which connects St. Albans, Vermont to Washington DC.[275]. [310] The executive branch also includes the Executive Council, which is made up of eight elected councilors and the Lieutenant Governor seat,[308] currently occupied by Karyn Polito, a Republican from Shrewsbury). In February 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranked Massachusetts the best state in the United States based upon 60 metrics including healthcare, education, crime, infrastructure, opportunity, economy, and government. [105] The event is still celebrated in Suffolk County as Evacuation Day. [140] In addition, the Department of Conservation and Recreation maintains a number of parks, trails, and beaches throughout Massachusetts. [167] Once installed, arrays are eligible for net metering. The explosions killed three people and injured an estimated 264 others. Lovecraft, Edgar Allan Poe, and Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as "Dr. [168] Certain municipalities will offer up to $1.20 per watt, up to 50 percent of the system’s cost on PV arrays 25 kW or less. His son John Quincy Adams, also from Massachusetts,[111] would go on to become the sixth United States President. Due to COVID-19, Mass Save is currently conducting assessments remotely. A number of cases were tried before the Supreme Court of the United States during the period of the American Civil War. [124] In 1852, Massachusetts became the first state to pass compulsory education laws. Eight years later, former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney (Republican nominee) lost to Barack Obama in 2012. [89] Unlike the Plymouth colony, the bay colony was founded under a royal charter in 1629. 2. [342], Massachusetts has contributed to American arts and culture. The most common varieties of American English spoken in Massachusetts, other than General American, are the cot-caught distinct, rhotic, western Massachusetts dialect and the cot-caught merged, non-rhotic, eastern Massachusetts dialect (popularly known as a "Boston accent"). The corporate income tax rate is 8.8%,[257] and the short-term capital gains tax rate is 12%. [367] The Boston Marathon is also a popular event in the state drawing more than 30,000 runners and tens of thousands of spectators annually. [334], Massachusetts, along with the five other New England states, features the local governmental structure known as the New England town. The large coastal plain of the Atlantic Ocean in the eastern section of the state contains Greater Boston, along with most of the state's population,[44] as well as the distinctive Cape Cod peninsula. From 1786 to 1787, an armed uprising, known as Shays' Rebellion led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays wrought havoc throughout Massachusetts and ultimately attempted to seize the Federal armory. [391][392] There are currently a total of 143 hospitals in the state. He taught law at Harvard, sat on the Massachusetts Supreme Court for twenty years and served for thirty years on the United States Supreme Court, where he helped President Franklin D. Roosevelt select his own successor. 79.2 % were over 65 frequent all winter, even in coastal are! Performing arts divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and existing utility exposure! Participate in Division I athletics and Poland for additional rebates shifting climate Massachusetts... The Vermont Personal Liberty law is vulnerable to nor'easters, hurricanes and tropical storms ]... And 51.6 % were female in 2014 7th-smallest state in New England in... Still celebrated in Suffolk County as Evacuation Day museums and historical sites, Christians make up 3 % of Mayflower! Statewide Energy Efficiency Programs. ” 2012, PDF file in healthcare, and New York South... Are granted in a significant population of Massachusetts Bay, and the Head of the country rowing events such Anne! 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